The scanning speed of Atomic Force Microscopes (AFMs) is typically limited by the frequency of the triangular trajectory used in generating the raster scan. This is because the higher harmonics of the triangular trajectory have a tendency to excite the mechanical resonances of the nanopositioners incorporated in the AFM, thereby introducing significant positioning errors. To address this issue, this paper proposes a novel scanning trajectory smoothing method to enable high-speed raster scanning. The proposed method utilizes the acceleration-continuous B-spline to replace the backward path of the triangular trajectory for the fast axis. As a result, the advantage of uniform sampling along the forward path is preserved. The trajectory generation process is described in detail. A hysteresis compensation method is employed to improve the tracking performance of the scanner. Experiments conducted on a commercial piezoelectric tube scanner are presented to demonstrate the performance improvement delivered by the proposed method when compared with the traditional raster scanning method. It is shown that the proposed method enables a five-fold improvement in achievable scanning rate, from 10 Hz to 50 Hz.
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics|
|Early online date||18 May 2020|
|Publication status||Published - Feb 2021|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Manuscript received March 10, 2020; accepted May 1, 2020. Date of publication May 18, 2020; date of current version February 16, 2021. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant 51975375 and Grant 91648202. The work of Sumeet S. Aphale was supported by Binks Trust Visiting Research Fellowship (2018), University of Aberdeen, U.K. The work of Linlin Li was supported in part by Shanghai Jiao Tong University Overseas Study Grant. Recommended by Technical Editor H. Xie and Senior Editor X. Tan. (Corresponding author: LiMin Zhu.) Linlin Li and Sumeet S. Aphale are with the State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China (e-mail: email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org).
Erratum: A smoothed raster scanning trajectory based on acceleration-continuous B-spline transition for high-speed atomic force microscopy (IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics (2021) 26:1 (24-32) DOI: 10.1109/TMECH.2020.2995156)
- atomic force microscope
- trajectory smoothing
- raster scanning
- hysteresis compensationn
- tracking control
- hysteresis compensation
- Atomic force microscope