Small studies suggest an association between ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) incidence and rurality, seasonality and socioeconomic deprivation. We examined the incidence of kidney biopsy-proven AAV and its relationship with these factors in the adult Scottish population.
Using the Scottish Renal Biopsy Registry, all adult native kidney biopsies performed between 2014 and 2018 with a diagnosis of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) or microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) were identified. The Scottish Government Urban Rural Classification was used for rurality analysis. Seasons were defined as autumn (September-November), winter (December-February), spring (March-May) and summer (June-August). Patients were separated into quintiles of socioeconomic deprivation using the validated Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation and incidence standardised to age. Estimated glomerular filtration rate and urine protein:creatinine ratio at time of biopsy were used to assess disease severity.
339 cases of renal AAV were identified, of which 62% had MPA and 38% had GPA diagnosis. AAV incidence was 15.1 per million population per year (pmp/year). Mean age was 66 years and 54% were female. Incidence of GPA (but not MPA) was positively associated with rurality (5.2, 8.4 and 9.1 pmp/year in 'urban', 'accessible remote' and 'rural remote' areas, respectively; p=0.04). The age-standardised incidence ratio was similar across all quintiles of deprivation (p=ns).
Seasonality and disease severity did not vary across AAV study groups. In this complete national cohort study, we observed a positive association between kidney biopsy-proven GPA and rurality.
Bibliographical noteFunding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Data Availability StatementData described in the manuscript is available on reasonable request. Further information, including the procedures for obtaining and accessing data is found from https://www.ndc.scot.nhs.uk/National-Datasets/data.asp?SubID=15
- granulomatosis with polyangiitis
- autoimmune diseases
- immune system diseases
- systemic vasculitis