The following study aimed to systematically review and meta-analyse the literature on the relations between markers of nutritional status and long-term mortality, recurrence and all-cause hospital readmission following myocardial infarction (MI). Medline, EMBASE and Web of Science were searched for prospective cohort studies reporting the relationship between anthropometric and biochemical markers of nutritional status and nutritional assessment tools on long-term mortality, recurrence and all-cause hospital readmission in adult patients with an MI. Two reviewers conducted screening, data extraction and critical appraisal independently. Random-effects meta-analysis was performed. Twenty-seven studies were included in the qualitative synthesis and twenty-four in the meta-analysis. All eligible studies analysed BMI as their exposure of interest. Relative to normal weight, mortality was highest in underweight patients (adjusted Hazard Ratio (95% confidence interval): 1.42 (1.24–1.62)) and lower in both overweight (0.85 (0.76–0.94)) and obese patients (0.86 (0.81–0.91)), over a mean follow-up ranging from 6 months to 17 years. No statistically significant associations were identified between different BMI categories for the outcomes of recurrence and hospital readmission. Patients with low BMI carried a significant mortality risk post-MI; however due to the known limitations associated with BMI measurement, further evidence regarding the prognostic utility of other nutritional markers is required.
Bibliographical noteAcknowledgments: The authors thank the contribution of Lee Hooper, University of East Anglia, who has provided supervision of Kafri’s work which contributed to this paper.
Funding: This research received no external funding.
Data Availability StatementAll data are incorporated into the article and its supplementary material.
- systematic review
- myocardial infarction
- hospi- tal readmission