Cine MR imaging of pulsatile cerebrospinal fluid flow using CSPAMM

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Spatial modulation of magnetization (SPAMM) is a well established imaging technique which superimposes a tagging pattern on conventional magnetic resonance (MR) images, allowing movement to be visualized. A modification to the SPAMM technique, called complementary spatial modulation of magnetization (CSPAMM), which improves the contrast of the tagging pattern is explained. The application of CSPAMM to the visualization of pulsatile cerebrospinal fluid flow (CSF) using an 8 frame cardiac-gated cine sequence is described. Various combinations of binomial pulses, up to the fifth order, were investigated to see which produces the optimum tagging pattern in the CSPAMM images. The flip angles of the imaging RF pulses were studied to see which would give equal maximum CSF signal intensity in all the cine images. The optimized cine CSPAMM technique was compared in vivo with SPAMM and CSF motion was found to be more easily visualized in the CSPAMM images.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1088-1095
Number of pages8
JournalBritish Journal of Radiology
Publication statusPublished - 1994


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