Cloning of the IL-1β3 gene and IL-1β4 pseudogene in salmonids uncovers a second type of IL-1β gene in teleost fish

Mansourah Husain, Steve Bird, Ruthger van Zwieten, Christopher J Secombes, Tiehui Wang

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66 Citations (Scopus)


To date two closely related interleukin-1β genes (IL-1β1 and IL-β2) have been found in salmonids. The cloning of trout and salmon IL-1β3, and a salmon IL-1β4 pseudogene reveals that two types of IL-1β genes exist in teleost species. Type I teleost IL-1β genes, including salmonid IL-1β3, share a similar 6 coding exon structure as in tetrapods. Type II teleost IL-1β genes, e.g. salmonid IL-1β1-2, lack one or two coding exons at their 5'-end, and share higher identities within this subgroup than within the type I subgroup. Both types of IL-1β genes have been found in species of Salmoniformes, Perciformes and Beloniformes, suggesting the divergence occurred early in teleost evolution. Trout IL-1β3 is highly expressed in ovary suggesting a role in reproduction. A relatively high constitutive expression in gills, spleen and kidney and the up-regulation by PAMPs, proinflammatory cytokines and viral infection suggests IL-1β3 also has a role in inflammation and host defence.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)431-446
Number of pages16
JournalDevelopmental and Comparative Immunology
Issue number3
Early online date10 Aug 2012
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2012

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


  • amino acid sequence
  • animals
  • base sequence
  • cell line
  • cloning, molecular
  • female
  • fish diseases
  • gene expression
  • gills
  • inflammation
  • interleukin-1beta
  • kidney
  • macrophages
  • molecular sequence data
  • novirhabdovirus
  • ovary
  • pseudogenes
  • rhabdoviridae infections
  • salmon
  • sequence alignment
  • sequence analysis, DNA
  • spleen
  • trout


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