Cofactor NAD(P)H regeneration inspired by heterogeneous pathways

Xiaodong Wang*, Tony Saba, Humphrey H.P. Yiu, Russell Howe, Jim Anderson, J Shi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

299 Citations (Scopus)
30 Downloads (Pure)


Biocatalysis can empower chemical, pharmaceutical, and energy industries, where the use of enzymes facilitates low-energy, sustainable methods of producing high-value chemicals and pharmaceuticals that are otherwise impossibly troublesome or costly to obtain. One of the largest classes of enzymes (oxidoreductases, ∼25% of the total) capable of promoting bioreduction reactions is vital for the global pharmaceutical and chemical market because of their intrinsic enantioselectivity and specificity. Enzymatic reduction depends on a coenzyme or cofactor as a hydride source, namely nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) or its phosphorylated form (NADPH). Given the high cost, stoichiometric usage, and physical instability of NAD(P)H, a suitable method for NAD(P)H regeneration is essential for practical application. This review summarizes the existing methods for NAD(P)H regeneration, including enzymatic, chemical, homogeneous catalytic, electrochemical, photocatalytic, and heterogeneous catalytic routes. Particular focus is given to recent progress in developing heterogeneous systems with potential significance in terms of process simplicity, cleanliness, and energy and/or cost savings.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)621-654
Number of pages34
Issue number5
Early online date11 May 2017
Publication statusPublished - 11 May 2017

Bibliographical note

This work was supported by The Carnegie Trust for the Universities of Scotland (70265), The Royal Society (RG150001 and IE150611) and Scottish Carbon Capture and Storage (SCCS) program. J.S. also acknowledges financial support from The National Natural Science Foundation of China (21406163 and 91534126). T.S. was supported by a University of Aberdeen Elphinstone PhD Scholarship.


  • cofactor regeneration
  • NADH
  • method
  • heterogeneous catalysis
  • photocatalytic
  • electrochemical
  • enzymatic
  • homogeneous catalysis
  • hydrogen
  • H2


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