Cross-bridge apparent rate constants of human gallbladder smooth muscles

Wenguang Li, Xiaoyu Luo, Tianhai Tian, Nicholas Hill, Raymond William Ogden, Anne Smythe, Ali Majeed, Nigel Bird

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


This paper studies human gallbladder (GB) smooth muscle contractions. A two-state cross-bridge model was used to estimate the apparent attachment and detachment rate constants, as well as increased Ca2+ concentration from the peak active stress during the isometric contraction. The active stress was computed from a mechanical model based entirely on non-invasive routine ultrasound scans. In the two-state cross-bridge model, the two apparent rate constants, representing the total attached/detached cross-bridges, respectively, were estimated using active stress prediction for 51 subjects undergoing cholecystokinin-provocation test, together with estimates from the four-state cross-bridge model for a swine carotid, bovine tracheal and guinea pig GB smooth muscles. The study suggests that the apparent rate constants should be patient-specific, i.e. patients with a lower stress level are characterized by smaller apparent rate constants. In other words, the diseased GB may need to develop fast cycling cross-bridges to compensate in the emptying process. This is a first step towards more quantitative and non-invasive measures of GB pain, and may provide useful insight in understanding GB motility and developing effective drug treatments.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)209-220
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Muscle Research and Cell Motility
Issue number3
Early online date27 Sept 2011
Publication statusPublished - 2011


  • Gallbladder
  • Active stress
  • CCK
  • Isometric contraction
  • Acalculous biliary pain
  • Cross-bridge
  • Apparent rate constant
  • Ca2+


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