BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stroke after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a serious complication, but its determinants and outcomes after PCI in different clinical settings are poorly documented.
METHODS: The British Cardiovascular Intervention Society (BCIS) database was used to study 560 439 patients who underwent PCI in England and Wales between 2006 and 2013. We examined procedural-type specific determinants of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke and the likelihood of subsequent 30-day mortality and in-hospital major adverse cardiovascular events (a composite of in-hospital mortality, myocardial infarction or reinfarction, and repeat revascularization).
RESULTS: A total of 705 stroke cases were recorded (80% ischemic). Stroke after an elective PCI or PCI for acute coronary syndrome indications was associated with a higher risk of adverse outcomes compared with those without stroke; 30-day mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events outcomes in fully adjusted model were odds ratios 37.90 (21.43-67.05) and 21.05 (13.25-33.44) for elective and 5.00 (3.96-6.31) and 6.25 (5.03-7.77) for acute coronary syndrome, respectively. Comparison of odds of these outcomes between these 2 settings showed no differences; corresponding odds ratios were 1.24 (0.64-2.43) and 0.63 (0.35-1.15), respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke complications are uncommon, but serious complications can occur after PCI and are independently associated with worse mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events outcomes in both the elective and acute coronary syndrome setting irrespective of stroke type. Our study provides a better understanding of the risk factors and prognosis of stroke after PCI by procedure type, allowing physicians to provide more informed advice around stroke risk after PCI and counsel patients and their families around outcomes if such neurological complications occur.
P.K.M. and M.A.M. conceived the study. P.K.M. formulated study design. C.S.K. and E.K. analyzed the data. P.K.M. and M.A.M. drafted the manuscript. All authors contributed in interpretation of results and in making an important intellectual contribution to the manuscript. M.A.M. is the guarantor.
Sources of Funding
The work was supported by a grant from the North Staffs Heart Committee. MRC Health eResearch Centre Grant MR/K006665/1 supported the time and facilities of E.K.
- elective percutaneous coronary intervention
- nonelective percutaneous coronary intervention
- risk factor