Development and validation of Elder-Friendly Urban Spaces Questionnaire (EFUSQ)

Azadeh Lak, Reihane Aghamolaei, Hamid R. Baradaran* (Corresponding Author), Phyo K. Myint

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)
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Considering the lack of specific measurement tools to study elders’ perceptions in outdoor spaces, the study objectives were to derive and validate a questionnaire that assesses the essential features of elderly-friendly urban spaces.

We used closed-ended questions in two phases. In the first qualitative phase, a preliminary questionnaire was defined using grounded theory. In the second phase, the psychometric properties of the elderly-friendly urban spaces were examined through validity and reliability indices.

The findings of the first phase led to a preliminary item extraction and questionnaire with 15 major domains based on three dimensions: place function, place preferences, and process. In the second phase, a 48-item questionnaire, based on three dimensions, in addition to personal characteristics, was introduced.

The Elderly-Friendly Urban Spaces Questionnaire (EFUSQ) can be adopted in various communities in understanding of how to create age-friendly urban spaces to promote active aging.
Original languageEnglish
Article number336
Number of pages14
JournalBMC Geriatrics
Publication statusPublished - 2 Dec 2019

Bibliographical note

All the authors wish to express their gratitude to department of Cultural & Social & affairs located in Distric 10 of Tehran Municipality.

There is no funding in this study.


  • older people
  • public space
  • age-friendly environment
  • active aging
  • Age-friendly environment
  • Public space
  • Active aging
  • Older people


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