Diversity, metabolism and microbial ecology of butyrate-producing bacteria from the human large intestine

Petra Louis* (Corresponding Author), Harry James Flint

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalLiterature reviewpeer-review

1461 Citations (Scopus)


Butyrate-producing bacteria play a key role in colonic health in humans. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the diversity, metabolism and microbial ecology of this functionally important group of bacteria. Human colonic butyrate producers are Gram-positive firmicutes, but are phylogenetically diverse, with the two most abundant groups related to Eubacterium rectale/Roseburia spp. and to Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Five different arrangements have been identified for the genes of the central pathway involved in butyrate synthesis, while in most cases butyryl-CoA : acetate CoA-transferase, rather than butyrate kinase, appears to perform the final step in butyrate synthesis. Mechanisms have been proposed recently in non-gut Clostridium spp. whereby butyrate synthesis can result in energy generation via both substrate-level phosphorylation and proton gradients. Here we suggest that these mechanisms also apply to the majority of butyrate producers from the human colon. The roles of these bacteria in the gut community and their influence on health are now being uncovered, taking advantage of the availability of cultured isolates and molecular methodologies. Populations of F. prausnitzii are reported to be decreased in Crohn's disease, for example, while populations of Roseburia relatives appear to be particularly sensitive to the diet composition in human volunteer studies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-8
Number of pages8
JournalFEMS Microbiology Letters
Issue number1
Early online date13 Feb 2009
Publication statusPublished - May 2009


  • butyrate
  • large intestine
  • gut health
  • colonic microbiota
  • anaerobic metabolism
  • human colonic microbiota
  • conjugated linoleic-acid
  • ribosomal-RNA gene
  • human gut bacteria
  • human fecal flora
  • human feces
  • faecalibacterium prausnitzii
  • bifidobacterium-adolescentis
  • fusobacterium-prausnitzii
  • roseburia-inulinivorans


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