Effect of levothyroxine on live birth rate in euthyroid women with recurrent miscarriage and TPO antibodies (T4-LIFE study)

R. Vissenberg*, M. M. van Dijk, E. Fliers, J. A.M. van der Post, M. van Wely, K. W.M. Bloemenkamp, A. Hoek, W. K. Kuchenbecker, H. R. Verhoeve, H. C.J. Scheepers, S. Rombout-de Weerd, C. Koks, J. J. Zwart, F. Broekmans, W. Verpoest, O. B. Christiansen, M. Post, D. N.M. Papatsonis, M. F.G. Verberg, J. SikkemaB. W. Mol, P. H. Bisschop, M. Goddijn

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab) in euthyroid women are associated with recurrent miscarriage (RM) and other pregnancy complications such as preterm birth. It is unclear if treatment with levothyroxine improves pregnancy outcome. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the effect of levothyroxine administration on live birth rate in euthyroid TPO-Ab positive women with recurrent miscarriage. Methods/design: We will perform a multicenter, placebo controlled randomized trial in euthyroid women with recurrent miscarriage and TPO-Ab. Recurrent miscarriage is defined as two or more miscarriages before the 20th week of gestation. The primary outcome is live birth, defined as the birth of a living fetus beyond 24. weeks of gestation. Secondary outcomes are ongoing pregnancy at 12. weeks, miscarriage, preterm birth, (serious) adverse events, time to pregnancy and survival at 28. days of neonatal life. The analysis will be performed according to the intention to treat principle. We need to randomize 240 women (120 per group) to demonstrate an improvement in live birth rate from 55% in the placebo group to 75% in the levothyroxine treatment group. This trial is a registered trial (NTR 3364, March 2012).Here we discuss the rationale and design of the T4-LIFE study, an international multicenter randomized, double blind placebo controlled, clinical trial aimed to assess the effectiveness of levothyroxine in women with recurrent miscarriage and TPO-Ab.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)134-138
Number of pages5
JournalContemporary Clinical Trials
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sept 2015


  • Levothyroxine
  • Live birth rate
  • Preterm birth
  • Recurrent miscarriage
  • Thyroid autoimmunity
  • TPO antibodies


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