Enablement: Getting the Most from the Consultation

David James Heaney, M. Maxwell

Research output: Contribution to specialist publicationLetter


Abstract: Evidence for the influence of unaware signals on behaviour has been reported in both patient groups and healthy observers using the Redundant Signal Effect (RSE). The RSE refers to faster manual reaction times to the onset of multiple simultaneously presented target than those to a single stimulus. These findings are robust and apply to unimodal and multi-modal sensory inputs. A number of studies on neurologically impaired cases have demonstrated that RSE can be found even in the absence of conscious experience of the redundant signals. Here, we investigated behavioural changes associated with awareness in healthy observers by using Continuous Flash Suppression to render observers unaware of redundant targets. Across three experiments, we found an association between reaction times to the onset of a consciously perceived target and the reported level of visual awareness of the redundant target, with higher awareness being associated with faster reaction times. However, in the absence of any awareness of the redundant target, we found no evidence for speeded reaction times and even weak evidence for an inhibitory effect (slowing down of reaction times) on response to the seen target. These findings reveal marked differences between healthy observers and blindsight patients in how aware and unaware information from different locations is integrated in the RSE.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages3
Specialist publicationThe New Generalist
Publication statusPublished - 2003


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