Bibliographical noteData availability.
The data supporting the results of this paper have been archived on the NERC Open Research Archive website (https://nora.nerc.ac.uk/, last access: 20 June 2018).
The Supplement related to this article is available online at https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-15-3811-2018-supplement.
This study was funded by the UK Natural Environment Research Council’s (NERC) Human Modified Tropical Forests research programme (grant numbers NE/K016377/1 and NE/K016407/1 awarded to the BALI and LOMBOK consortiums, respectively). We are grateful to NERC’s Airborne Research
Facility and Data Analysis Node for conducting the survey and preprocessing the airborne data and to Abdullah Ghani for manning the GPS base station. David A. Coomes was supported in part by an International Academic Fellowship from the Leverhulme Trust. The Carnegie Airborne Observatory portion of the study was supported by the UN Development Programme, the Avatar Alliance Foundation, the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil, the World Wildlife Fund and the Rainforest Trust. The Carnegie Airborne Observatory is made possible by grants and donations to Gregory P. Asner
from the Avatar Alliance Foundation, the Margaret A. Cargill Foundation, the David and Lucile Packard Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Grantham Foundation for the Protection of the Environment, the W. M. Keck Foundation, the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, the Andrew Mellon Foundation, Mary Anne Nyburg Baker and G. Leonard Baker Jr., and William R. Hearst III. The SAFE project was supported by the Sime Darby Foundation. We acknowledge the SAFE
management team, Maliau Basin Management Committee, Danum Valley Management Committee, South East Asia Rainforest Research Partnership, Sabah Foundation, Benta Wawasan, the State Secretary, the Sabah Chief Minister’s Departments, the Sabah Forestry Department, the Sabah Biodiversity Centre and the Economic Planning Unit for their support, access to the field sites and permission to carry out fieldwork in Sabah. Field data collection at Sepilok was supported by an ERC Advanced
Grant (291585, T-FORCES) awarded to Oliver L. Phillips, who is also a Royal Society Wolfson Research Merit Award holder. Martin Svátek was funded through a grant from the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic (grant number INGO II LG15051), and Jakub Kvasnica was funded through an IGA grant (grant number LDF_VP_2015038). We are grateful to the many field assistants who contributed to data collection.