Explaining the effects of an intervention designed to promote evidence-based diabetes care: a theory-based process evaluation of a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial

Jillian J Francis, Martin P. Eccles, Marie Johnston, Paula Whitty, Jeremy M Grimshaw, Eileen F. S. Kaner, Liz Smith, Anne Walker

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Background: The results of randomised controlled trials can be usefully illuminated by studies of the processes by which they achieve their effects. The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) offers a framework for conducting such studies. This study used TPB to explore the observed effects in a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial of a structured recall and prompting intervention to increase evidence-based diabetes care that was conducted in three Primary Care Trusts in England.
Methods: All general practitioners and nurses in practices involved in the trial were sent a postal questionnaire at the end of the intervention period, based on the TPB (predictor variables: attitude; subjective norm; perceived behavioural control, or PBC). It focussed on three clinical behaviours recommended in diabetes care: measuring blood pressure; inspecting feet; and prescribing statins. Multivariate analyses of variance and multiple regression analyses were used to explore changes in cognitions and thereby better understand trial effects.
Results: Fifty-nine general medical practitioners and 53 practice nurses (intervention: n = 55, 41.98% of trial participants; control: n = 57, 38.26% of trial participants) completed the questionnaire. There were no differences between groups in mean scores for attitudes, subjective norms, PBC or intentions. Control group clinicians had 'normatively-driven' intentions (i.e., related to subjective norm scores), whereas intervention group clinicians had 'attitudinally-driven' intentions (i.e., related to attitude scores) for foot inspection and statin prescription. After controlling for effects of the three predictor variables, this group difference was significant for foot inspection behaviour ( trial group x attitude interaction, beta = 0.72, p < 0.05; trial group x subjective norm interaction, beta = -0.65, p < 0.05).
Conclusion: Attitudinally-driven intentions are proposed to be more consistently translated into action than normatively-driven intentions. This proposition was supported by the findings, thus offering an interpretation of the trial effects. This analytic approach demonstrates the potential of the TPB to explain trial effects in terms of different relationships between variables rather than differences in mean scores. This study illustrates the use of theory-based process evaluation to uncover processes underlying change in implementation trials.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages11
JournalImplementation Science
Issue number50
Publication statusPublished - 19 Nov 2008

Bibliographical note


We are grateful to the health care professionals who participated in this study.

This project was funded by the European Union as part of the ReBEQI project http://www.rebeqi.org. Jeremy Grimshaw holds a Canada Research Chair in Health Knowledge Transfer and Uptake. Eileen Kaner holds a Department of Health funded NHS Primary Care Career Scientist award.


  • planned behavior
  • self-determination
  • subjective norms
  • intentions
  • attitudes
  • variables


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