ExpressInHost: A codon tuning tool for the expression of recombinant proteins in host microorganisms

Adelaide Raguin* (Corresponding Author), Ian Stansfield, M Carmen Romano

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
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ExpressInHost ( is a GTK/C++ based user friendly graphical interface that allows tuning the codon sequence of an mRNA for recombinant protein expression in a host microorganism. Heterologous gene expression is widely implemented in biotechnology companies and academic research laboratories. However, expression of recombinant proteins can be challenging. On the one hand, maximising translation speed is important, especially in scalable production processes relevant to biotechnology companies, but on the other hand, solubility problems often arise as a consequence, since translation ‘pauses’ might be key to allow the nascent polypeptide chain to fold appropriately. To address this challenge, we have developed a software that offers three distinct modes to tune codon sequences using the genetic code redundancy. The tuning strategies implemented take into account the specific tRNA resources of the host and that of the native organism. They balance rapid translation and native speed mimicking, which might be important to allow proper protein folding, thereby avoiding protein solubility problems.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Open Research Software
Issue number2
Early online date1 Feb 2023
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information
This work was performed as part of the Innovate UK project “Predictive optimisation of biocatalyst production for high-value chemical manufacturing” (Project Number TP101439). The current position of A.R. is funded by the German federal and state programme Professorinnenprogramms III for female scientists.


  • Codon tuning
  • recombinant expression
  • Heterologous proteins
  • Graphical user interface


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