Implicating genes, pleiotropy, and sexual dimorphism at blood lipid loci through multi-ancestry meta-analysis

Stavroula Kanoni, Sarah E Graham, Yuxuan Wang, Ida Surakka, Shweta Ramdas, Xiang Zhu, Shoa L Clarke, Konain Fatima Bhatti, Sailaja Vedantam, Thomas W Winkler, Adam E Locke, Eirini Marouli, Greg J M Zajac, Kuan-Han H Wu, Ioanna Ntalla, Qin Hui, Derek Klarin, Austin T Hilliard, Zeyuan Wang, Chao XueGudmar Thorleifsson, Anna Helgadottir, Daniel F Gudbjartsson, Hilma Holm, Isleifur Olafsson, Mi Yeong Hwang, Sohee Han, Masato Akiyama, Saori Sakaue, Chikashi Terao, Masahiro Kanai, Wei Zhou, Ben M Brumpton, Humaira Rasheed, Aki S Havulinna, Yogasudha Veturi, Jennifer Allen Pacheco, Elisabeth A Rosenthal, Todd Lingren, QiPing Feng, Iftikhar J Kullo, Akira Narita, Jun Takayama, Hilary C Martin, Karen A Hunt, Bhavi Trivedi, Jeffrey Haessler, Franco Giulianini, Yuki Bradford, Jason E Miller, Archie Campbell, Kuang Lin, Iona Y Millwood, Asif Rasheed, George Hindy, Jessica D Faul, Wei Zhao, David R Weir, Constance Turman, Hongyan Huang, Mariaelisa Graff, Ananyo Choudhury, Dhriti Sengupta, Anubha Mahajan, Michael R Brown, Weihua Zhang, Ketian Yu, Ellen M Schmidt, Anita Pandit, Stefan Gustafsson, Xianyong Yin, Jian'an Luan, Jing-Hua Zhao, Fumihiko Matsuda, Hye-Mi Jang, Kyungheon Yoon, Carolina Medina-Gomez, Achilleas Pitsillides, Jouke Jan Hottenga, Andrew R Wood, Yingji Ji, Zishan Gao, Simon Haworth, Noha A Yousri, Ruth E Mitchell, Jin Fang Chai, Mette Aadahl, Anne A Bjerregaard, Jie Yao, Ani Manichaikul, Chii-Min Hwu, Yi-Jen Hung, Helen R Warren, Julia Ramirez, Jette Bork-Jensen, Line L Kårhus, Anuj Goel, Maria Sabater-Lleal, Raymond Noordam, Pala Mauro, Floris Matteo, Aaron F McDaid, Pedro Marques-Vidal, Matthias Wielscher, Stella Trompet, Naveed Sattar, Line T Møllehave, Matthias Munz, Lingyao Zeng, Jianfeng Huang, Bin Yang, Alaitz Poveda, Azra Kurbasic, Claudia Lamina, Lukas Forer, Markus Scholz, Tessel E Galesloot, Jonathan P Bradfield, Sanni E Ruotsalainen, EWarwick Daw, Joseph M Zmuda, Jonathan S Mitchell, Christian Fuchsberger, Henry Christensen, Jennifer A Brody, Miguel Vazquez-Moreno, Mary F Feitosa, Mary K Wojczynski, Zhe Wang, Michael H Preuss, Massimo Mangino, Paraskevi Christofidou, Niek Verweij, Jan W Benjamins, Jorgen Engmann, Noah L Tsao, Anurag Verma, Roderick C Slieker, Ken Sin Lo, Nuno R Zilhao, Phuong Le, Marcus E Kleber, Graciela E Delgado, Shaofeng Huo, Daisuke D Ikeda, Hiroyuki Iha, Jian Yang, Jun Liu, Ayşe Demirkan, Hampton L Leonard, Jonathan Marten, Mirjam Frank, Börge Schmidt, Laura J Smyth, Marisa Cañadas-Garre, Chaolong Wang, Masahiro Nakatochi, Andrew Wong, Nina Hutri-Kähönen, Xueling Sim, Rui Xia, Alicia Huerta-Chagoya, Juan Carlos Fernandez-Lopez, Valeriya Lyssenko, Suraj S Nongmaithem, Swati Bayyana, Heather M Stringham, Marguerite R Irvin, Christopher Oldmeadow, Han-Na Kim, Seungho Ryu, Paul R H J Timmers, Liubov Arbeeva, Rajkumar Dorajoo, Leslie A Lange, Gauri Prasad, Laura Lorés-Motta, Marc Pauper, Jirong Long, Xiaohui Li, Elizabeth Theusch, Fumihiko Takeuchi, Cassandra N Spracklen, Anu Loukola, Sailalitha Bollepalli, Sophie C Warner, Ya Xing Wang, Wen B Wei, Teresa Nutile, Daniela Ruggiero, Yun Ju Sung, Shufeng Chen, Fangchao Liu, Jingyun Yang, Katherine A Kentistou, Bernhard Banas, Giuseppe Giovanni Nardone, Karina Meidtner, Lawrence F Bielak, Jennifer A Smith, Prashantha Hebbar, Aliki-Eleni Farmaki, Edith Hofer, Maoxuan Lin, Maria Pina Concas, Simona Vaccargiu, Peter J van der Most, Niina Pitkänen, Brian E Cade, Sander W van der Laan, Kumaraswamy Naidu Chitrala, Stefan Weiss, Amy R Bentley, Ayo P Doumatey, Adebowale A Adeyemo, Jong Young Lee, Eva R B Petersen, Aneta A Nielsen, Hyeok Sun Choi, Maria Nethander, Sandra Freitag-Wolf, Lorraine Southam, Nigel W Rayner, Carol A Wang, Shih-Yi Lin, Jun-Sing Wang, Christian Couture, Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, Kjell Nikus, Gabriel Cuellar-Partida, Henrik Vestergaard, Bertha Hidalgo, Olga Giannakopoulou, Qiuyin Cai, Morgan O Obura, Jessica van Setten, Xiaoyin Li, Jingjing Liang, Hua Tang, Natalie Terzikhan, Jae Hun Shin, Rebecca D Jackson, Alexander P Reiner, Lisa Warsinger Martin, Zhengming Chen, Liming Li, Takahisa Kawaguchi, Joachim Thiery, Joshua C Bis, Lenore J Launer, Huaixing Li, Mike A Nalls, Olli T Raitakari, Sahoko Ichihara, Sarah H Wild, Christopher P Nelson, Harry Campbell, Susanne Jäger, Toru Nabika, Fahd Al-Mulla, Harri Niinikoski, Peter S Braund, Ivana Kolcic, Peter Kovacs, Tota Giardoglou, Tomohiro Katsuya, Dominique de Kleijn, Gert J de Borst, Eung Kweon Kim, Hieab H H Adams, M Arfan Ikram, Xiaofeng Zhu, Folkert W Asselbergs, Adriaan O Kraaijeveld, Joline W J Beulens, Xiao-Ou Shu, Loukianos S Rallidis, Oluf Pedersen, Torben Hansen, Paul Mitchell, Alex W Hewitt, Mika Kähönen, Louis Pérusse, Claude Bouchard, Anke Tönjes, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Craig E Pennell, Trevor A Mori, Wolfgang Lieb, Andre Franke, Claes Ohlsson, Dan Mellström, Yoon Shin Cho, Hyejin Lee, Jian-Min Yuan, Woon-Puay Koh, Sang Youl Rhee, Jeong-Taek Woo, Iris M Heid, Klaus J Stark, Martina E Zimmermann, Henry Völzke, Georg Homuth, Michele K Evans, Alan B Zonderman, Ozren Polasek, Gerard Pasterkamp, Imo E Hoefer, Susan Redline, Katja Pahkala, Albertine J Oldehinkel, Harold Snieder, Ginevra Biino, Reinhold Schmidt, Helena Schmidt, Stefania Bandinelli, George Dedoussis, Thangavel Alphonse Thanaraj, Sharon L R Kardia, Patricia A Peyser, Norihiro Kato, Matthias B Schulze, Giorgia Girotto, Carsten A Böger, Bettina Jung, Peter K Joshi, David A Bennett, Philip L De Jager, Xiangfeng Lu, Vasiliki Mamakou, Morris Brown, Mark J Caulfield, Patricia B Munroe, Xiuqing Guo, Marina Ciullo, Jost B Jonas, Nilesh J Samani, Jaakko Kaprio, Päivi Pajukanta, Teresa Tusié-Luna, Carlos A Aguilar-Salinas, Linda S Adair, Sonny Augustin Bechayda, H Janaka de Silva, Ananda R Wickremasinghe, Ronald M Krauss, Jer-Yuarn Wu, Wei Zheng, Anneke Iden Hollander, Dwaipayan Bharadwaj, Adolfo Correa, James G Wilson, Lars Lind, Chew-Kiat Heng, Amanda E Nelson, Yvonne M Golightly, James F Wilson, Brenda Penninx, Hyung-Lae Kim, John Attia, Rodney J Scott, D C Rao, Donna K Arnett, Steven C Hunt, Mark Walker, Heikki A Koistinen, Giriraj R Chandak, Josep M Mercader, Maria C Costanzo, Dongkeun Jang, Noël P Burtt, Clicerio Gonzalez Villalpando, Lorena Orozco, Myriam Fornage, EShyong Tai, Rob M van Dam, Terho Lehtimäki, Nish Chaturvedi, Mitsuhiro Yokota, Jianjun Liu, Dermot F Reilly, Amy Jayne McKnight, Frank Kee, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Mark I McCarthy, Colin N A Palmer, Veronique Vitart, Caroline Hayward, Eleanor Simonsick, Cornelia M van Duijn, Zi-Bing Jin, Jia Qu, Haretsugu Hishigaki, Xu Lin, Winfried März, Vilmundur Gudnason, Jean-Claude Tardif, Guillaume Lettre, Leen M 't Hart, Petra J M Elders, Scott M Damrauer, Meena Kumari, Mika Kivimaki, Pim van der Harst, Tim D Spector, Ruth J F Loos, Michael A Province, Esteban J Parra, Miguel Cruz, Bruce M Psaty, Ivan Brandslund, Peter P Pramstaller, Charles N Rotimi, Kaare Christensen, Samuli Ripatti, Elisabeth Widén, Hakon Hakonarson, Struan F A Grant, Lambertus A L M Kiemeney, Jacqueline de Graaf, Markus Loeffler, Florian Kronenberg, Dongfeng Gu, Jeanette Erdmann, Heribert Schunkert, Paul W Franks, Allan Linneberg, J Wouter Jukema, Amit V Khera, Minna Männikkö, Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin, Zoltan Kutalik, Cucca Francesco, Dennis O Mook-Kanamori, Ko Willems van Dijk, Hugh Watkins, David P Strachan, Niels Grarup, Peter Sever, Neil Poulter, Lee-Ming Chuang, Jerome I Rotter, Thomas M Dantoft, Fredrik Karpe, Matt J Neville, Nicholas J Timpson, Ching-Yu Cheng, Tien-Yin Wong, Chiea Chuen Khor, Hengtong Li, Charumathi Sabanayagam, Annette Peters, Christian Gieger, Andrew T Hattersley, Nancy L Pedersen, Patrik K E Magnusson, Dorret I Boomsma, Allegonda H M Willemsen, LAdrienne Cupples, Joyce B J van Meurs, Mohsen Ghanbari, Penny Gordon-Larsen, Wei Huang, Young Jin Kim, Yasuharu Tabara, Nicholas J Wareham, Claudia Langenberg, Eleftheria Zeggini, Johanna Kuusisto, Markku Laakso, Erik Ingelsson, Goncalo Abecasis, John C Chambers, Jaspal S Kooner, Paul S de Vries, Alanna C Morrison, Scott Hazelhurst, Michèle Ramsay, Kari E North, Martha Daviglus, Peter Kraft, Nicholas G Martin, John B Whitfield, Shahid Abbas, Danish Saleheen, Robin G Walters, Michael V Holmes, Corri Black, Blair H Smith, Aris Baras, Anne E Justice, Julie E Buring, Paul M Ridker, Daniel I Chasman, Charles Kooperberg, Gen Tamiya, Masayuki Yamamoto, David A van Heel, Richard C Trembath, Wei-Qi Wei, Gail P Jarvik, Bahram Namjou, M Geoffrey Hayes, Marylyn D Ritchie, Pekka Jousilahti, Veikko Salomaa, Kristian Hveem, Bjørn Olav Åsvold, Michiaki Kubo, Yoichiro Kamatani, Yukinori Okada, Yoshinori Murakami, Bong-Jo Kim, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Kari Stefansson, Jifeng Zhang, YEugene Chen, Yuk-Lam Ho, Julie A Lynch, Daniel J Rader, Philip S Tsao, Kyong-Mi Chang, Kelly Cho, Christopher J O'Donnell, John M Gaziano, Peter W F Wilson, Timothy M Frayling, Joel N Hirschhorn, Sekar Kathiresan, Karen L Mohlke, Yan V Sun, Andrew P Morris, Michael Boehnke, Christopher D Brown, Pradeep Natarajan, Panos Deloukas, Cristen J Willer, Themistocles L Assimes, Gina M Peloso

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Genetic variants within nearly 1000 loci are known to contribute to modulation of blood lipid levels. However, the biological pathways underlying these associations are frequently unknown, limiting understanding of these findings and hindering downstream translational efforts such as drug target discovery.

RESULTS: To expand our understanding of the underlying biological pathways and mechanisms controlling blood lipid levels, we leverage a large multi-ancestry meta-analysis (N = 1,654,960) of blood lipids to prioritize putative causal genes for 2286 lipid associations using six gene prediction approaches. Using phenome-wide association (PheWAS) scans, we identify relationships of genetically predicted lipid levels to other diseases and conditions. We confirm known pleiotropic associations with cardiovascular phenotypes and determine novel associations, notably with cholelithiasis risk. We perform sex-stratified GWAS meta-analysis of lipid levels and show that 3-5% of autosomal lipid-associated loci demonstrate sex-biased effects. Finally, we report 21 novel lipid loci identified on the X chromosome. Many of the sex-biased autosomal and X chromosome lipid loci show pleiotropic associations with sex hormones, emphasizing the role of hormone regulation in lipid metabolism.

CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our findings provide insights into the biological mechanisms through which associated variants lead to altered lipid levels and potentially cardiovascular disease risk.

Original languageEnglish
Article number268
JournalGenome Biology
Volume23
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 27 Dec 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding
GMP, PN, and CW are supported by NHLBI R01HL127564. GMP and PN are supported by R01HL142711. AG acknowledge support from the Wellcome Trust (201543/B/16/Z), European Union Seventh Framework Programme FP7/2007–2013 under grant agreement no. HEALTH-F2-2013–601456 (CVGenes@Target) & the TriPartite Immunometabolism Consortium [TrIC]-Novo Nordisk Foundation’s Grant number NNF15CC0018486. JMM is supported by American Diabetes Association Innovative and Clinical Translational Award 1–19-ICTS-068. SR was supported by the Academy of Finland Center of Excellence in Complex Disease Genetics (Grant No 312062), the Finnish Foundation for Cardiovascular Research, the Sigrid Juselius Foundation, and University of Helsinki HiLIFE Fellow and Grand Challenge grants. EW was supported by the Finnish innovation fund Sitra (EW) and Finska Läkaresällskapet. CNS was supported by American Heart Association Postdoctoral Fellowships 15POST24470131 and 17POST33650016. Charles N Rotimi is supported by Z01HG200362. Zhe Wang, Michael H Preuss, and Ruth JF Loos are supported by R01HL142302. NJT is a Wellcome Trust Investigator (202802/Z/16/Z), is the PI of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (MRC & WT 217065/Z/19/Z), is supported by the University of Bristol NIHR Biomedical Research Centre (BRC-1215–2001) and the MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit (MC_UU_00011), and works within the CRUK Integrative Cancer Epidemiology Programme (C18281/A19169). Ruth E Mitchell is a member of the MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit at the University of Bristol funded by the MRC (MC_UU_00011/1). Simon Haworth is supported by the UK National Institute for Health Research Academic Clinical Fellowship. Paul S. de Vries was supported by American Heart Association grant number 18CDA34110116. Julia Ramierz acknowledges support by the People Programme of the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme grant n° 608765 and Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant n° 786833. Maria Sabater-Lleal is supported by a Miguel Servet contract from the ISCIII Spanish Health Institute (CP17/00142) and co-financed by the European Social Fund. Jian Yang is funded by the Westlake Education Foundation. Olga Giannakopoulou has received funding from the British Heart Foundation (BHF) (FS/14/66/3129). CHARGE Consortium cohorts were supported by R01HL105756. Study-specific acknowledgements are available in the Additional file 32: Supplementary Note. The views expressed in this manuscript are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; the National Institutes of Health; or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Keywords

  • Humans
  • Genome-Wide Association Study
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Sex Characteristics
  • Phenotype
  • Lipids/genetics
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
  • Genetic Pleiotropy
  • cholesterol

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