This paper analyzes how sanitation can be improved in the informal settlements of East African cities through a hybrid model. Qualitative research was carried out in eight settlements in three cities. Findings show that all cities apply a hybrid model (with some variation) when providing improved sanitation to their residents. Sanitation services were available in all cities, but there was no evidence of the state actively organizing a functioning sanitation market in Kampala or Kisumu. This implies that a hybrid model with a strong and committed developmental state is the right choice in the context of the informal settlements of East African cities.
|Number of pages||16|
|Journal||International Journal of Water Resources Development|
|Early online date||11 Apr 2017|
|Publication status||Published - Feb 2018|
This article draws on research carried out as part of a Post-Doctoral Grants (Post-doc) Scheme through the University of Rwanda, UR-Sweden Programme of Research, Higher Education and Institutional Advancement, which is funded by the Swedish International Development Agency (SIDA). It was also built on a larger project (3K-SAN Project) that was funded by SPLASH, Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC). The authors would like to thank the funders and all institutions involved in this research.
- informal settlements
- East Africa
- market approach
- state-led approach