Improving sanitation in informal settlements of East African cities: hybrid of market and state-led approaches

Aime Tsinda, Pamela Abbott, Jonathon Chenoweth, Steve Pedley, Maurice Kwizera

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


This paper analyzes how sanitation can be improved in the informal settlements of East African cities through a hybrid model. Qualitative research was carried out in eight settlements in three cities. Findings show that all cities apply a hybrid model (with some variation) when providing improved sanitation to their residents. Sanitation services were available in all cities, but there was no evidence of the state actively organizing a functioning sanitation market in Kampala or Kisumu. This implies that a hybrid model with a strong and committed developmental state is the right choice in the context of the informal settlements of East African cities.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)229-244
Number of pages16
JournalInternational Journal of Water Resources Development
Issue number2
Early online date11 Apr 2017
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2018

Bibliographical note

This article draws on research carried out as part of a Post-Doctoral Grants (Post-doc) Scheme through the University of Rwanda, UR-Sweden Programme of Research, Higher Education and Institutional Advancement, which is funded by the Swedish International Development Agency (SIDA). It was also built on a larger project (3K-SAN Project) that was funded by SPLASH, Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC). The authors would like to thank the funders and all institutions involved in this research.


  • sanitation
  • informal settlements
  • East Africa
  • market approach
  • state-led approach


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