G Rugg, Peter McGeorge

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

65 Citations (Scopus)


There is still a need for new knowledge elicitation techniques and tools. Laddering is a technique which has a long history in a wide range of disciplines and which has proved extremely useful in knowledge elicitation. There hate, however, been few attempts to describe and survey the technique per se.

This paper describes the technique, its background, its use, analysis, and automation, with particular reference to knowledge elicitation. The advantages and disadvantages of the technique are described. It is concluded that laddering is a valuable technique which could be used in a wide range of settings.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)339-346
Number of pages8
JournalExpert Systems
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Nov 1995


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