Models and empirical data for the production of referring expressions

Albert Gatt*, Emiel Krahmer, Kees van Deemter, Roger P. G. van Gompel

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)
7 Downloads (Pure)


This paper introduces a special issue of Language, Cognition and Neuroscience dedicated to Production of Referring Expressions: Models and Empirical Data, focusing on models of reference production that make empirically testable predictions, as well as on empirical work that can inform the design of such models. In addition to introducing the volume, this paper also gives an overview of recent experimental and modelling work, focusing on two principal aspects of reference production, namely, choice of anaphoric referential expression and choice of semantic content for referential noun phrases. It also addresses the distinction between dialogue and non-dialogue settings, focussing especially on the impact of a dialogue setting on referential choice and the evidence for audience design in the choices speakers make.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)899-911
Number of pages13
JournalLanguage cognition and neuroscience
Issue number8
Early online date19 Jun 2014
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Bibliographical note

Article Accepted Date: 29 May 2014

The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the Cognitive Science Society for the organisation of the Workshop on Production of Referring Expressions: Bridging the Gap between Cognitive and Computational Approaches to Reference, from which this special issue originated.

Emiel Krahmer and Albert Gatt thank The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) for VICI grant Bridging the Gap between Computational Linguistics and Psycholinguistics: The Case of Referring Expressions (grant number 277-70-007).


  • language production
  • computational modelling
  • referring expressions
  • spoken language comprehension
  • referential overspecification
  • definite descriptions
  • weather forecasts
  • cognitive status
  • thematic roles
  • noun phrase
  • discourse
  • generation
  • pronouns


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