Normative data for the HADS from a large non-clinical sample

John Robertson Crawford, J. D. Henry, E. P. Taylor, Caroline Margaret Crombie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

664 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives. To provide normative data for the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS). Design. Repeated measures and correlational.

Methods. The HADS was administered to a non-clinical sample, broadly representative of the general adult UK population (N = 1792) in terms of the distributions of age, gender and occupational status. Correlational analysis was used to determine the influence of demographic variables on HADS scores.

Results. Demographic variables had only very modest influences on HADS scores. The reliability of the HADS is acceptable; the Anxiety and Depression scales are moderately correlated (.53). Tables to convert raw scores to percentiles are presented for females and males.

Conclusions. The present normative data allow clinicians to assess the rarity of a given HADS score, and thus provide a useful supplement to existing cut-off scores.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)429-434
Number of pages5
JournalBritish Journal of Clinical Psychology
Issue numberPt 4
Publication statusPublished - 2001




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