Cytokines are small proteins that regulate innate and adaptive immune responses and are released by both immune and non-immune cell types. In the current study, the constitutive and induced gene expression profiles of a suite of proinflammatory and regulatory cytokines was examined comparatively in eight rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) cell lines, in order to establish the cytokine repertoires of these different cell types, especially the understudied non-immune cells. They included three epithelial cell lines (RTgut, RTgill, and RTL), one endothelial cell line (RTH), one fibroblast cell line (RTG-2), two stromal cell lines (TSS and TPS-2) and one monocyte/macrophage-like cell line (RTS-11). Three types of primary leukocytes (derived from blood, spleen and head kidney) of trout were also included in the analysis, to allow comparison to the repertoires expressed in T cells, as a major source of cytokines in immune responses. The major findings are: 1) IL-2A, IL-2B, IL-4/13B1, IL-4/13B2, IL-10b, P40B1, P28B, IL-17A/F1b, TNF-α3, TNF-α4, IFNγ1, CCL20L2b and CCL20L3a are expressed mainly in leukocytes but IL-17 N, IL-17D, IL-20 and CCL20L1b2 are not expressed in these cells. Hence future studies in these cell lines will help establish their function in fish; 2) Some of the cytokines were differentially expressed in the cell lines, revealing the potential role of these cell types in aspects of trout mucosal and inflammatory immune responses, 3) Similar cell types grouped together in the cell cluster analysis, including the leukocyte cluster, stromal cell cluster, and epithelial and endothelial cell cluster. Taken together, this investigation of these trout cell lines forms a good database for studying the function of cytokines not expressed in isolated leukocytes or that are preferentially expressed in the cell lines. Furthermore, the cytokine expression analysis undertaken confirmed the phenotypic relationship of these cell types at the molecular level.
Fuguo Liu was supported by a Newton International Fellowship funded by the Academy of Medical Sciences, UK (AMS, NIF004\1036).
- Expression profile
- Cell line
- Primary leukocytec
- Rainbow trout