Plasma-concentrations of carotenoids and antioxidant vitamins in Scottish males: influences of smoking

M A Ross, L K Crosley, K M Brown, S J Duthie, A C Collins, J R Arthur, G G Duthie

Research output: Contribution to journalComment/debatepeer-review

93 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: To quantify the major carotenoids in plasma of Scottish males and establish which were affected by habitual smoking.

Design: Concentrations of carotenoids, vitamin C and vitamin E (alpha and gamma-tocopherol) were determined in plasma samples from 50 fasted male smokers and 50 age-matched males who had never smoked (aged 50-59 years).

Results: Significantly less alpha-carotene, beta-carotene and beta-cryptoxanthin and vitamin C in plasma of smokers than in never-smokers whereas concentrations of lycopene, lutein/zeaxanthin, phytofluene and vitamin E were similar between the groups.

Conclusion: Whether lower carotenoid and vitamin C concentrations in smokers than never-smokers reflect different dietary patterns or increased metabolic turnover is unclear but smokers may benefit from increased carotenoid and vitamin C intakes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)861-865
Number of pages5
JournalEuropean Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 1995


  • plasma carotenoids
  • smokers
  • lipid-peroxidation
  • nonsmokers
  • alcohol
  • retinol
  • plasma caretonoids


Dive into the research topics of 'Plasma-concentrations of carotenoids and antioxidant vitamins in Scottish males: influences of smoking'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this