Quality of life assessment in clinical trials - guidelines and a checklist for protocol writers: The U.K. Medical Research Council experience

P. M. Fayers*, P. Hopwood, A. Harvey, D. J. Girling, D. Machin, R. Stephens

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

124 Citations (Scopus)


Many clinical trials groups now routinely consider including Quality of Life (QoL) assessment in trials. Indeed, several have policies stating that QoL should be considered as a potential endpoint in all new trials and that if it is not to be evaluated the applicants should justify not doing so. However, inclusion of QoL in clinical trials presents a number of difficult organisational issues, and serious problems in compliance have frequently been reported. Thus, in multicentre clinical trials many of the expected QoL questionnaires fail to be successfully completed and returned, although a few groups have claimed high success rates. However, it is well recognised that if questionnaires are missing, there may be bias in the interpretation of trial results, and the estimates of treatment differences and the overall level of QoL may be inaccurate and misleading. Hence it is important to seek methods of improving compliance, at the level of both the participating institution and the patient. We describe a number of methods for addressing these issues, which we suggest should be considered by all those writing clinical trial protocols involving QoL assessment. These are based upon over a decade of experience with assessing QoL in Medical Research Council (MRC) cancer clinical trials. In particular, we provide a checklist for points that should be covered in protocols. Examples are given from a range of current MRC Cancer Trials Office protocols, which it is proposed might act as templates when writing new protocols.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)20-28
Number of pages9
JournalEuropean Journal of Cancer
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1997

Bibliographical note

The examples cited have been drawn from a variety of MRC protocols, and we wish to thank the many members of the various MRC Working Parties who have contributed to the development and wording of these protocols; in particular, the
MRC Lung Cancer Working Party has played a major role in influencing the MRC approach.


  • cancer clinical trials
  • patient compliance
  • protocol design
  • quality of life
  • randomised controlled trials


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