Recommendations for probiotic use: 2011 update

Martin H. Floch, W. Allan Walker, Karen Madsen, Mary Ellen Sanders, George T. Macfarlane, Harry J. Flint, Levinus A. Dieleman, Yehuda Ringel, Stefano Guandalini, Ciaran P. Kelly, Lawrence J. Brandt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

184 Citations (Scopus)


This study describes the consensus opinion of the participants of the third Yale Workshop on probiotic use. There were 10 experts participating. The recommendations update those of the first 2 meetings that were published in 2005 and 2008. The workshop presentations and papers in this supplement relate to the involvement of normal microbiota involved in intestinal microecology, how the microbes interact with the intestine to affect our immunologic responses, the stability and natural history of probiotic organisms, and the role of the intestinal microbatome with regard to affecting cardiac risk factors and obesity. Recommendations for the use of probiotics in necrotizing enterocolitis, childhood diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and Clostridium difficile diarrhea are reviewed. As in previous publications, the recommendations are given as A, B, or C ratings. The recent positive experiences with bacteriotherapy (fecal microbiome transplant) are also discussed in detail and a positive recommendation is made for use in severe resistant C. difficile diarrhea.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S168-S171
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2011


  • probiotics
  • recommendations
  • diarrhea
  • irritable-bowel-syndrome
  • placebo-controlled trial
  • antibiotic-assoiated diarrhea
  • double-blind
  • ulcerative-colitis
  • Crohns-disease
  • maintaining remission
  • maintenance treatment
  • Escherichia-coli
  • lactobacillus


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