Silicon-containing Apatites

Iain Ronald Gibson

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

3 Citations (Scopus)


Researchers have used a variety of methods to enhance the performance of hydroxyapatite (HA) as a bone graft material. These include, among other methods, porosity optimization, in combination with various proportions of other calcium phosphate phases such as beta-tricalcium phosphate (ß-TCP), or by adsorption of various growth factors on the surface. Another approach is to change the chemistry of HA. The modification of HA by the substitution of relatively small amounts (<2 wt%) of silicon, in the form of silicate ions, for phosphate ions effects a significant change in its properties. A variety of studies have reported the effect of silicon-substituted HA (Si-HA) ceramics on surface charge, grain size, dissolution in vitro and in vivo, osteoblast cell growth, and bone repair in vivo. This review summarizes these studies, including the synthesis of Si-HA, the formation of Si-HA coatings and porous scaffolds, and their biological behavior, and attempts to correlate physiochemical properties with in vitro and in vivo observations. An overview of a related system, namely silicon-stabilized TCP, is also provided. In addition to reviewing the current status of silicon-substituted calcium phosphate ceramics, this chapter offers a view of the future requirements of research in this field.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationComprehensive Biomaterials
EditorsPaul Ducheyne, Kevin E. Healy, David W. Grainger, Dietmar W. Hutmacher, Charles James Kirkpatrick
Place of PublicationAmsterdam, Netherlands
Number of pages21
ISBN (Electronic)9780080552941
ISBN (Print)9780080553023
Publication statusPublished - 2011


  • apatite
  • bioceramics
  • bone grafts
  • bone repair
  • coatings
  • hydroxyapatite
  • scaffolds
  • silicate
  • silicon
  • tricalcium phosphate


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