Social Citizenship, Solidarity and Welfare in Regionalized and Plurinational States

Michael Keating

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

55 Citations (Scopus)


The social welfare literature has often assumed the existence of a unified, territorial nation-state. This would provide the basis for solidarity and social citizenship, while mobilizing the resources for redistribution. Spatial rescaling and boundary-opening have put the model in question as market-making, market regulation and market-correction have migrated to different levels. States have also widely decentralized. Some fear that this poses a threat to the welfare state by weakening social citizenship and provoking a race to the bottom. Yet solidarity might be re-forged at new levels. The empirical evidence gives little sustenance to the argument for a race to the bottom but rather suggests that social solidarity is being rebuilt at multiple levels.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)501-513
Number of pages13
JournalCitizenship Studies
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 30 Jun 2009


  • social welfare
  • decentralization
  • devolution


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