In part 2 of this two-part manuscript on takotsubo syndrome (TTS), we discuss typical biomarkers (particularly excess catecholamines and what kinds of electrocardiographic information operators should look for) and numerous complications the syndrome can cause. This consensus paper is the result of a multinational effort aiming to summarize the current state of the art on TTS. Several novel and unique sections are emphasized in this document, including the current state of the art on genetics of takotsubo syndrome, microRNAs (miRs), racial differences, role of cardiac spectroscopy and intracoronary imaging, as well as mechanical circulatory support. New structured algorithms are also proposed to aid clinicians in the decision-making process as well as future directions for research given the current lack of evidence-based medical approaches.
Bibliographical noteThis research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
- Heart failure