The AFm phase in Portland cement

Thomas Matschei, B. Lothenbach, F. P. Glasser

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

575 Citations (Scopus)


The AFm phase of Portland cements refers to a family of hydrated calcium aluminates based on the hydrocalumite-like structure of 4CaO center dot Al2O3 center dot 13-19 H2O. However OH- may be replaced by SO42- and CO32-. Except for limited replacement (50 mol%, maximum) of sulfate by hydroxide, these compositions do not form solid solutions and, from the mineralogical standpoint, behave as separate phases. Therefore many hydrated cements will contain mixtures of AFm phases. AFm phases have been made from precursors and experimentally-determined phase relationships are depicted at 25 degrees C. Solubility data are reported and thermodynamic data are derived. The 25 degrees C stability of AFm phases is much affected by the nature of the anion: carbonate stabilises AFm and displaces OH and SO4 at species activities commonly encountered in cement systems. However in the presence of portlandite, and as carbonate displaces sulfate in AFm, the reaction results in changes in the amount of both portlandite and ettringite: specimen calculations are presented to quantify these changes. The scheme of phase balances enables calculation of the mineralogical balances of a hydrated cement paste with greater accuracy than hitherto practicable. (C) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)118-130
Number of pages13
JournalCement and Concrete Research
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2007


  • AFm
  • AFt
  • sulfate
  • phase composition
  • thermodynamics
  • solid-solution
  • system
  • 25-degrees-C
  • solubility
  • hydration
  • ettringite
  • equilibria
  • compound


Dive into the research topics of 'The AFm phase in Portland cement'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this