The arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus is particularly regarded as a critical platform that integrates circulating signals of hunger and satiety reflecting energy stores and nutrient availability. Among ARC neurons, pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and agouti-related protein and neuropeptide Y (NPY/AgRP neurons) are considered as two opposing branches of the melanocortin signaling pathway. Integration of circulating signals of hunger and satiety results in the release of the melanocortin receptor ligand α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (αMSH) by the POMC neurons system and decreases feeding and increases energy expenditure. The orexigenic/anabolic action of NPY/AgRP neurons is believed to rely essentially on their inhibitory input onto POMC neurons and second-orders targets. Recent updates in the field have casted a new light on the role of the ARC neurons in the coordinated regulation of peripheral organs involved in the control of nutrient storage, transformation and substrate utilization independent of food intake.
|Number of pages||13|
|Journal||Best Practice & Research: Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism|
|Early online date||4 Apr 2014|
|Publication status||Published - Oct 2014|
Bibliographical noteCopyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
- nutrient partitioning
- substrate utilization
- agouti-related peptide
- neuropeptide Y
- autonomic nervous system