More epidemiological data are needed on risk and protective factors for child development. In The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study, we assessed child development in a harmonious manner across 8 sites in Bangladesh, Brazil, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Peru, South Africa, and Tanzania. From birth to 24 months, development and language acquisition were assessed via the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development and a modified MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory. Other measures were infant temperament, the child's environment, maternal psychological adjustment, and maternal reasoning abilities. We developed standard operating procedures and used multiple techniques to ensure appropriate adaptation and quality assurance across the sites. Test adaptation required significant time and human resources but is essential for data quality; funders should support this step in future studies. At the end of this study, we will have a portfolio of culturally adapted instruments for child development studies with examination of psychometric properties of each tool used.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Financial support. The Etiology, Risk Factors, and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development Project (MAL-ED) is carried out as a collaborative project supported by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health, and the National Institutes of Health, Fogarty International Center.
Supplement sponsorship. This article appeared as part of the supplement “The Malnutrition and Enteric Disease Study (MAL-ED): Understanding the Consequences for Child Health and Development,” sponsored by the National Institutes of Health and the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health. Potential conflicts of interest. All authors: No reported conflicts.
© 2014 The Author.
- cognitive development
- low-and middle-income countries