The structural and diagenetic evolution of injected sandstones: examples from the Kimmeridgian of NE Scotland

R. Jonk, D. Duranti, J. Parnell, A. Hurst, A. E. Fallick

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

35 Citations (Scopus)


Injected sandstones occurring in the Kimmeridgian of NE Scotland along the bounding Great Glen and Helmsdale faults formed when basinal fluids moved upward along the fault zones, fluidizing Oxfordian sands encountered at shallow depth and injecting them into overlying Kimmeridgian strata. The orientation of dykes, in addition to coeval faults and fractures, was controlled by a stress state related to dextral strike-slip along the bounding fault zones. Diagenetic studies of cements allow the reconstruction of the fluid flow history. The origin of deformation bands in sandstone dykes and sills was related to the contraction of the host-rocks against dyke and sill walls following the initial stage of fluidized flow, and these deformation bands are the earliest diagenetic imprint. Early non-ferroan calcite precipitated in injection structures at temperatures between 70 and 100 degreesC, indicating that it precipitated from relatively hot basinal fluids that drove injection. Coeval calcite-filled fractures show similar temperatures, suggesting that relatively hot fluids were responsible for calcite precipitation in any permeable pathway created by dextral simple shear along the faults. During progressive burial, percolating sea water was responsible for completely cementing the still relatively porous injected sandstones with a second generation of ferroan calcite, which contains fluid inclusions with homogenization temperatures below 50 degreesC. During this phase, depositional host sandstones were also cemented.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)881-894
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of the Geological Society
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2003

Bibliographical note

G. Watt and N. Bordas-Lefloch are thanked for assistance with SEM–CL and fluid inclusion microthermometry, respectively. K. Bjørlykke is thanked for reviewing an earlier version of this manuscript. Journal reviewers D. Dewhurst, J. Macquaker and R. Worden significantly improved the quality of the manuscript. The members of the Injected Sands Consortium (ChevronTexaco, Shell, Norsk Hydro, KerrMcGee, Statoil and TotalFinaElf) are thanked for financial support.


  • Kimmeridgian
  • sandstone dykes
  • carbonates
  • cements
  • deformation


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