Aim: Trials on diet and physical activity in pregnancy report on various outcomes. We aimed to assess the variations in outcomes reported and their quality in trials on lifestyle interventions in pregnancy. Methods: We searched major databases without language restrictions for randomized controlled trials on diet and physical activity-based interventions in pregnancy up to March 2015. Two independent reviewers undertook study selection and data extraction. We estimated the percentage of papers reporting ‘critically important’ and ‘important’ outcomes. We defined the quality of reporting as a proportion using a six-item questionnaire. Regression analysis was used to identify factors affecting this quality. Results: Sixty-six randomized controlled trials were published in 78 papers (66 main, 12 secondary). Gestational diabetes (57.6%, 38/66), preterm birth (48.5%, 32/66) and cesarian section (60.6%, 40/66), were the commonly reported ‘critically important’ outcomes. Gestational weight gain (84.5%, 56/66) and birth weight (87.9%, 58/66) were reported in most papers, although not considered critically important. The median quality of reporting was 0.60 (interquartile range 0.25, 0.83) for a maximum score of one. Study and journal characteristics did not affect quality. Conclusion: Many studies on lifestyle interventions in pregnancy do not report critically important outcomes, highlighting the need for core outcome set development.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1101-1110
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
Issue number7
Early online date14 Jun 2017
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2017


  • diet
  • outcome
  • physical activity
  • pregnancy
  • quality
  • randomized trial


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