1. Human activities can influence the movement of organisms, either repelling or attracting individuals depending on whether they interfere with natural behavioural patterns or enhance access to food. To discern the processes affecting such interactions, an appropriate analytical approach must reflect the motivations driving behavioural decisions at multiple scales.
2. In this study, we developed a modelling framework for the analysis of foraging trips by central place foragers. By recognising the distinction between movement phases at a larger scale and movement steps at a finer scale, our model can identify periods when animals are actively following moving attractors in their landscape.
3. We applied the framework to GPS tracking data of northern fulmars Fulmarus glacialis, paired with contemporaneous fishing boat locations, to quantify the putative scavenging activity of these seabirds on discarded fish and offal. We estimated the rate and scale of interaction between individual birds and fishing boats and the interplay with other aspects of a foraging trip.
4. The model classified periods when birds were heading out to sea, returning towards the colony or following the closest boat. The probability of switching towards a boat declined with distance and varied depending on the phase of the trip. The maximum distance at which a bird switched towards the closest boat was estimated around 35 km, suggesting the use of olfactory information to locate food. Individuals spent a quarter of a foraging trip, on average, following fishing boats, with marked heterogeneity among trips and individuals.
5. Our approach can be used to characterise interactions between central place foragers and different anthropogenic or natural stimuli. The model identifies the processes influencing central place foraging at multiple scales, which can improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying movement behaviour and characterise individual variation in interactions with a range of human activities that may attract or repel these species. Therefore, it can be adapted to explore the movement of other species that are subject to multiple dynamic drivers.
Fulmar tracking data: The spreadsheet contains the fulmar tracking data used for the study, collected on Eynhallow (Scotland) in July 2009. The data were filtered and interpolated at a 10-minute resolution using R, as described in the paper. The data set includes: the bird and trip ID numbers, the longitude and latitude coordinates of a bird at each time step of a trip, the corresponding date and time, the step length (in degrees), the bearing (measured from 0 radians), and the closest boat's longitude, latitude and distance (in km) from the bird.
This work is licensed under a CC0 1.0 Universal (CC0 1.0) Public Domain Dedication license.
- Animal telemetry
- Central place foraging
- Fulmarus glacialis
- Hidden state modelling
- Movement attractors