Several recent studies have proposed that according to Paul gentiles join Abraham’s lineage in a quasi-physiological way by being infused with material πνεῦμα. This article assesses that proposal, finding it to be an inaccurate description of Paul’s language and rationale, and it sets forth an alternative proposal based on Romans 4 and Paul’s descriptions of baptism. This alternative proposal is that Paul understood the forging of an Abrahamic and divine pedigree for gentiles to be a divine act of creation from nothing concomitant with believers’ proleptic death and resurrection in solidarity with the messiah.
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- material pnema
- 'in Christ'