A Case-Control Study of Parkinson's Disease and Tobacco Use: Gene-Tobacco Interactions

Giuseppe De Palma*, Finlay D. Dick, Stefano Calzetti, Neil W. Scott, Gordon J. Prescott, Aileen Osborne, Neva Haites, Paola Mozzoni, Anna Negrotti, Augusto Scaglioni, Antonio Mutti, Geoparkinson Study Group

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Citations (Scopus)


A case-control study of genetic, environmental, and occupational risk factors for Parkinson's disease (PD) was carried out in five European countries (Italy, Malta, Romania, Scotland, and Sweden) to explore the possible contribution of interactions among host and environmental factors in sporadic PD. Whereas smoking habits confirmed its negative association with PD, a possible modulatory role of genetic polymorphisms was investigated to obtain further mechanistic insights. We recruited 767 cases of PD and 1989 age-matched and gender-matched controls. Participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire including the history of smoking habits. The polymorphisms of genes involved either in metabolism of compounds contained in tobacco smoke (CYP2D6, CYP1B1, GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTM3, GSTP1, NQO1, SOD2, EPHX and NAT2) or in dopaminergic neurotransmission (MAOA, MAOB, DAT1 and DRD2) were characterized by PCR based methods on genomic DNA. We found evidence of statistically significant gene-tobacco interaction for GSTM1. NAT2 and GSTP1, the negative association between tobacco smoking and PD being significantly enhanced in subjects expressing GSTM1-1 activity, in NAT2 fast acetylators, and in those with the GSTP1*B*C haplotype. Owing to the retrospective design of the study, these results require confirmation. (C) 2010 Movement Disorder Society

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)912-919
Number of pages8
JournalMovement Disorders
Issue number7
Early online date29 Mar 2010
Publication statusPublished - 15 May 2010


  • Aged
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Female
  • Gene Expression
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Occupational Exposure
  • Parkinson Disease
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Polymorphism, Genetic
  • Tobacco Use Disorder
  • Tobacco smoking
  • Genetic polymorphism
  • Gene-environment interactions


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