A flexible model of consumer country-of-origin perceptions: A cross-cultural investigation

Gary A. Knight*, Roger J. Calantone

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

190 Citations (Scopus)


There is much research suggesting that the image consumers hold about a product's country of origin can influence their purchase decision, but little empirical work has focused on the underlying cognitive processing. A flexible model is devised and tested to represent country image processing, using data from large samples of US and Japanese consumers. In addition to strongly supporting the validity of the model, results suggest that country image cognitive processing is significantly more complex than previously thought, and that culture appears to play an important role in purchase decisions. The flexible model represents a substantive improvement in the depiction of cognitive processing regarding country-of-origin image.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)127-145
Number of pages19
JournalInternational Marketing Review
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2000


  • Consumer behaviour
  • Country of origin
  • International marketing
  • Japan
  • National cultures


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