Cervical cancer (CC) is increasing in Japanese women of reproductive age. Most CCs occur in women who do not undergo regular cervical screening. This represents around 70% of young Japanese women. Thus, strategies to increase screening uptake are necessary. Studies have shown that human papillomavirus self-sampling (HPV self-sampling) is an inexpensive and well-accepted method for HPV detection that can increase non-responder participation in CC screening programs. However, no such study has taken place in Japan. The aim of this pilot-study was therefore to assess acceptability and preference for HPV self-sampling compared with traditional physician-sampled Pap tests (physician sampling) in a Japanese population.