At several locations in the Mongolian steppe, the archaeological remains of large enclosure walls have been found in association with structures and ceramics related to the Mongol and Khitan-Liao empires. These structures are probably the remains of infrastructure built to support large-scale extraction of livestock from the pastoralist population in Mongolia between the ninth and fourteenth centuries. This may be evidence of little-documented taxation policies of steppe states during this period, the scale of the production of resource surplus from the steppe, and examples of state-structured pastoralist landscapes and the state itself in the everyday experience of medieval herders.
|Number of pages||26|
|Journal||The Journal of Economic and Social History of the Orient|
|Early online date||6 Jul 2015|
|Publication status||Published - 2015|
- Mongol Empire
- Khitan-Liao Empire