Managing the impacts of invasive alien species (IAS) is a great societal challenge. A wide variety of terms have been used to describe the management of invasive alien species and the sequence in which they might be applied. This variety and lack of consistency creates uncertainty in the presentation and description of management in policy, science and practice. Here we expand on the existing description of the invasion process to develop an IAS management framework. We define the different forms of active management using a novel approach based on changes in species status, avoiding the need for stand-alone descriptions of management types, and provide a complete set of potential management activities. We propose a standardised set of management terminology as an emergent feature of this framework. We identified eight key forms of management: (1) pathway management, (2) interception, (3) limits to keeping, (4) secure keeping, (5) eradication, (6) complete reproductive removal, (7) containment and (8) suppression. We recognise four associated terms: prevention; captive management; rapid eradication; and long-term management, and note the use of impact mitigation and restoration as associated forms of management. We discuss the wider use of this framework and the supporting activities required to ensure management is well-targeted, cost-effective and makes best use of limited resources.
Bibliographical noteAcknowledgements This paper arose from a workshop of the Invasion Dynamics Network (InDyNet) in Berlin in 2018, funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) Grant JE 288/8-1, which included a Mercator Fellowship for DLS. Additional support was received through DFG Grants JE 288/9- 1 and JE 288/9-2 to JMJ, the G.E. Hutchinson Chair to DLS and the project ‘‘Capacity Building Neobiota’’ (Austrian Federal Ministry for Sustainability and Tourism) to WR. AN, PP and JP were supported by long-term research development project no. RVO 67985939, project 17-19025S and EXPRO grant 19-28807X (Czech Science Foundation). IJ was supported by the J. E. Purkyneˇ Fellowship of the Czech Academy of Sciences. We also thank the referees for this paper for their critical and constructive comments.