A real-time, 3-D musculoskeletal model for dynamic simulation of arm movements.

EK Chadwick, D Blana, AJ van den Bogert, RF Kirsch

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

72 Citations (Scopus)


Neuroprostheses can be used to restore movement of the upper limb in individuals with high-level spinal cord injury. Development and evaluation of command and control schemes for such devices typically require real-time, “patient-in-the-loop” experimentation. A real-time, 3-D, musculoskeletal model of the upper limb has been developed for use in a simulation environment to allow such testing to be carried out noninvasively. The model provides real-time feedback of human arm dynamics that can be displayed to the user in a virtual reality environment. The model has a 3-DOF glenohumeral joint as well as elbow flexion/extension and pronation/supination and contains 22 muscles of the shoulder and elbow divided into multiple elements. The model is able to run in real time on modest desktop hardware and demonstrates that a large-scale, 3-D model can be made to run in real time. This is a prerequisite for a real-time, whole-arm model that will form part of a dynamic arm simulator for use in the development, testing, and user training of neural prosthesis systems.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)941-948
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2009


Dive into the research topics of 'A real-time, 3-D musculoskeletal model for dynamic simulation of arm movements.'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this