A socio-linguistic theory of closing the gap in Scottish schools

Ian Williams* (Corresponding Author), Education in the North

*Corresponding author for this work

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Inequality in achievement in Scottish schools is argued to be caused in part by the process through which learning may take place, for example the medium of the Curriculum for Excellence (CfE) Literacy Outcomes. In practice, and perhaps by implication, standard, sequenced middle-class discourse, be it Scots or English, may be presumed to be the assessed process of learning and thus provide a barrier. Alternatives are considered: radical, extra-curricular political groupings, supplemented by social media dialects; direct instruction of information as a stage sequence towards open, group discourse; subversion of standard language through consciousness of a continuum between radical dialect and standard form.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)171-176
Number of pages7
JournalEducation in the North
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 28 May 2021


  • inequality
  • CfE
  • literacy outcomes
  • social class
  • closing the gap
  • Scotland


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