CD44 and MMP-9 are implicated in cell migration. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that actin polymerization is critical for CD44 surface expression and MMP-9 activity on the cell surface. To understand the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in CD44 surface expression and MMP-9 activity on the cell surface, osteoclasts were treated with bisphosphonate (BP) alendronate, cytochalasin D (Cyt D), and a broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor (GM600 1). BP has been reported to block the mevalonate pathway, thereby preventing prenylation of small GTPase signaling required for actin cytoskeleton modulation. We show in this study that osteoclasts secrete CD44 and MMP-9 into the resorption bay during migration and bone resorption. Results indicate that actin polymerization is critical for CD44 surface expression and osteoclast function. In particular, the surface expression of CD44 and the membrane activity of MMP-9 are reduced in osteoclasts treated with alendronate and Cyt D despite the membrane levels of MMP-9 being unaffected. Although GM600 1 blocked MMP-9 activity, osteoclast migration, and bone resorption, the surface levels of CD44 were unaffected. We suggest that the surface expression of CD44 requires actin polymerization. Disruption of poclosome and actin ring structures by Cyt D and alendronate not only resulted in reduced localization of MMIP-9 in these structures but also in osteoclast migration and bone resorption. These results suggest that inhibition of actin polymerization by alendronate and Cyt D is effective in blocking CD44/MMP-9 complex formation on the cell surface, secretion of active form of MMP-9, and osteoclast migration. CD44/MMP-9 complex formation may signify a unique motilityenhancing signal in osteoclast function.
- membrane-type-1 matrix-metalloproteinase
- tumor-cell migration
- hemopexin-like domain
- signaling pathways
- cancer cells