Activity energy expenditure is an independent predictor of energy intake in humans

Mark Hopkins (Corresponding Author), Cristiana Duarte, Kristine Beaulieu, Graham Finlayson, Catherine Gibbons, Alexandra Johnstone, Stephen Whybrow, Graham W Horgan, John E Blundell, R James Stubbs

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Abstract

Background: There is evidence that the energetic demand of metabolically active tissue is associated with day-to-day food intake (EI). However, the extent to which behavioural components of total daily energy expenditure (EE) such as activity energy expenditure (AEE) are also associated with EI is unknown. Therefore, the present study examined the cross-sectional associations between body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR), AEE and EI. Methods: Data for 242 individuals (114 males; 128 females; BMI = 25.7 ± 4.9 kg/m2) were collated from the baseline control conditions of five studies employing common measures of body composition (air displacement plethysmography) and RMR (indirect calorimetry). Daily EI (weighed-dietary records) and EE (FLEX heart rate) were measured over 6–7 days, and AEE was calculated as total daily EE minus RMR. Results: Linear regression indicated that RMR (ß = 0.39; P < 0.001), fat mass (ß = −0.26; P < 0.001) and AEE (ß = 0.18; P = 0.002) were independent predictors of mean daily EI, with AEE adding ≈3% of variance to the model after controlling for age, sex and study (F(10, 231) = 18.532, P < 0.001; R2 = 0.445). Path analyses indicated that the effect of FFM on mean daily EI was mediated by RMR (P < 0.05), while direct (β = 0.19; P < 0.001) and indirect (β = 0.20; P = 0.001) associations between AEE and mean daily EI were observed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1466–1474
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Obesity
Volume43
Issue number7
Early online date18 Jan 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2019

Bibliographical note

Acknowledgements: The authors’ responsibilities were as follows: RJS, GWH, AMJ and SW conceived the individual studies; RJS, SW, AMJ and the project team (Leona O’Reilley and Zoe Fuller) conducted the research. MH, CD and GWH analysed the data & performed the statistical analysis. MH, JB, RJS and GF and wrote the initial manuscript, while all authors commented on and approved the manuscript. RJS had primary responsibility for final content.

Funding: The present study was funded by the Food Standards Agency, UK, and The Scottish Government’s Rural and Environment Science and Analytical Services Division. None of the funding bodies had a role in the design, analysis or writing of this article.

Keywords

  • feeding behaviour
  • obesity
  • EATING BEHAVIOR
  • AIR-DISPLACEMENT PLETHYSMOGRAPHY
  • FAT-FREE MASS
  • APPETITE CONTROL
  • RESTING METABOLIC-RATE
  • PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY
  • BODY-COMPOSITION
  • MEAL SIZE
  • WEIGHT
  • EXERCISE

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