'An extraordinarily acute embarrassment': the doctrine of angels in Barth’s Göttingen Dogmatics

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Study of Barth’s doctrine of angels has languished, and the time is ripe for a
thorough reassessment. While any full account will centre on the magisterial theology of angels in the Church Dogmatics, much can be gained from a close, contextually informed reading of the earlier treatment of angels in the Göttingen dogmatics lectures. These lectures are shaped by a twofold procedural commitment: Barth’s presentation is ordered, on one hand, to a recognizably modern conception of the logical content of Christian preaching; and it conforms, on the other hand, to a doctrinal sequence recommended by the dogmatic textbooks of the classical Reformed tradition. A tension between these two aspects becomes visible in Barth’s handling of the doctrine of angels—a tract of teaching by which he is visibly unsettled. Barth accordingly attends with particular care to two fundamental modern objections to the doctrine—viz., that it involves a superfluous reduplication of anthropological themes and that it has no independent doctrinal standing. The first objection exploits the observation that the doctrine of angels traditionally stands in close proximity to the doctrine of the human creature; the second follows from the
claim that Christian preaching and the dogmatic theology that serves it attends strictly to the relationship between God and humanity realized and revealed in the gospel. Barth’s attempts to respond to these criticisms and so to draw out the necessity and the proper dogmatic status of the doctrine of angels are traced in detail. Angels and demons, conceived as real spiritual forces, are ineluctable features of the situation within which human moral agency is exercised. And angels are ingredient in though not central to the scriptural depiction of the relationship between God and humanity. Barth’s elaboration of the positive features of Protestant scholastic angelology is summarized, and the motivating impulses and constructive potential of his theology of angels are briefly noted: Barth’s exposition may be read as a complex exercise in theological self-differentiation; a recommendation of a distinctive style of biblical reasoning; and a creative contribution to the revitalization of a culture of Christian witness.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)319-337
Number of pages19
JournalScottish Journal of Theology
Issue number3
Early online date16 Jul 2013
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2013


  • angels
  • Barth
  • church dogmatics
  • demons
  • Gottingen dogmatics


Dive into the research topics of ''An extraordinarily acute embarrassment': the doctrine of angels in Barth’s Göttingen Dogmatics'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this