Analysis of sequential cytokine release after ACL reconstruction

A L Hayward, D J Deehan, R M Aspden, A G Sutherland

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)


Rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament is common and may necessitate surgical reconstruction. Surgical reconstruction aims to restore normal kinematics and biology within the knee. The acute phase response after surgical reconstruction remains poorly defined but may influence graft integration through modulation of host tissue remodelling.

The very early host production of key cytokines after surgery was studied. A consecutive series of 14 patients undergoing reconstructive surgery were studied per-operatively, 1 and 6 h after surgery, examining the hypothesis that the acute phase response would be non-specific but consistent between individuals, demonstrating increases of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

A consistent increased release of monocyte-driven, non-specific, IL-1 and IL-6 release but not T cell-derived IL-2 was found. Perhaps, more interestingly, very early high concentrations of secondary growth factors PDGF and TGF-beta suggestive of an anabolic response were found.

These data support the contention that an anabolic response starts earlier than previously thought within the surgically reconstructed knee.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1709-1715
Number of pages7
JournalKnee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2011


  • anterior cruciate ligament
  • growth factors
  • cytokines
  • transforming-growth-factor
  • synovial-fluid cytokine
  • biological-properties
  • patellar tendon
  • deficient knee
  • rabbit model
  • bone tunnel
  • disease
  • injury


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