Anti-thrombotics and their impact on inpatient epistaxis management: a tertiary centre experience

Kwee Yen Goh, Puneet Tiwari, Sangeeta Maini, Bhaskar Ram, Raghav Dwivedi, Gavin Donaldson* (Corresponding Author)

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

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Introduction: Epistaxis represents a massive burden upon NHS resources. Despite being an extremely common reason for emergency ENT admissions, there remains significant variation in its management. Although the evidence base is continually growing, there appears to be a lack of guidance towards managing anti-coagulants and anti-platelet medications and identifying patient-specific outcomes in this setting. Epistaxis has long been associated with a multitude of risk factors but none have shown consistent, direct correlation.

Materials and methods: We aimed to identify if the use of anti-thrombotic medication was associated with a longer length of hospital admission or conferred a higher requirement for nasal packing, re-packing, surgery or re-admission. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 100 consecutive adult patients admitted over a 6-month period. Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS software.

Results: Sixty-five percent of patients were taking anti-thrombotic medication. The variability of admission INR values in those taking warfarin did not relate with any outcome measure. There was no statistical difference between patients taking anti-thrombotic medication and those who do not, with regards to our primary outcome measures. Re-admission rates within 28 days were found to be 13%, with anti-thrombotic medication use and pre-existing cardiovascular disease recognised as commonly encountered risk factors. Three percent of patients required surgical intervention. Eight percent of patients required re-packing, with a Rapid Rhino chosen in all instances.

Conclusion: The use of anti-thrombotic medication is not associated with increased morbidity or increased rate of complications. Anti-thrombotic usage and more than one medical co-morbidity increase the risk of re-admission within 28 days.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1621–1629
Number of pages9
JournalIrish Journal of Medical Science (1971 -)
Early online date25 Sept 2021
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2022


  • Anti-coagulants
  • Anti-platelets
  • Emergency
  • Epistaxis
  • Management


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