The study investigated if rurality, area deprivation, access to outside space (Study 1), and frequency of visiting and duration in green space (Study 2) are associated with mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic and examined if individual demographics (age, gender, COVID-19 shielding status) and illness beliefs have a direct association with mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic. A serial, weekly, nationally representative, cross-sectional, observational study of randomly selected adults was conducted in Scotland during June and July 2020. If available, validated instruments were used to measure psychological distress, individual demographics, illness beliefs, and the following characteristics: Rurality, area deprivation, access to residential outside space, frequency of visiting, and duration in green space. Simple linear regressions followed by examination of moderation effect were conducted. There were 2969 participants in Study 1, of which 1765 (59.6%) were female, 349 (11.9%) were in the shielding category, and the median age was 54 years. There were 502 participants in Study 2, of which 295 (58.60%) were female, 58 (11.6%) were in shielding category, and the median age was 53 years. Direct effects showed that psychological distress was worse if participants reported the following: Urban, in a deprived area, no access to or sharing residential outside space, fewer visits to green space (environment), younger, female, in the shielding category (demographics), worse illness (COVID-19) representations, and greater threat perception (illness beliefs). Moderation analyses showed that environmental factors amplified the direct effects of the individual factors on psychological distress. This study offers pointers for public health and for environmental planning, design, and management, including housing design and public open space provision and regulation.
|Number of pages||17|
|Journal||International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health|
|Publication status||Published - 7 Apr 2021|
Bibliographical noteAcknowledgments: CHARIS is supported by the following consortium of behavioural scientists, psychologists and social scientists in Scotland: Julia Allan, University of Aberdeen; Michelle Beattie, University of the Highlands and Islands; Mioara Cristea, Heriot-Watt University; Alice Davis, The
Institute of Occupational Medicine; Fiona Dobbie, University of Edinburgh; Niamh Fitzgerald, University of Stirling; Leanne Fleming, University of Strathclyde; Barbara Farquharson, University of Stirling; Liz Forbat, University of Stirling, Trish Gorely, University of the Highlands and Islands;
Cindy Gray, University of Glasgow; Mark Grindle, University of the Highlands and Islands; Eileen Harkess-Murphy, University of the West of Scotland; Bianca Hatin, University of the West of Scotland, Kate Hunt, University of Stirling; Robin Ion, University of the West of Scotland; Lisa Kidd, University of Glasgow; Terry Lansdown, Heriot-Watt University; Leah Macaden, University of the Highlands and Islands; Wendy Maltinsky, University of Stirling; Stewart Mercer, University of Edinburgh; SarahAnne Munoz, University of the Highlands and Islands; Ronan O’Carroll, University of Stirling; Kate O’Donnell, University of Glasgow; Gozde Ozakinci, University of St Andrews; Amanda Pitkethly, Edinburgh Napier University; Kate Reid, University of Glasgow; Sean Semple, University of Stirling; Dina Sidhva, University of the West of Scotland; Martine Stead, University of Stirling; Mary E Stewart, Heriot-Watt University; Debbie Tolson, University of the West of Scotland; Sally Wyke, University of Glasgow.
Funding: This research was funded by Chief Scientist Office, Scotland
- area deprivation
- green space
- mental health