Recent research calls for distinguishing whether the failure to comply with World Health Organisation hand hygiene guidelines is driven by omitting to rub/wash hands, or subsequently recontamination of clean hands or gloves prior to a procedure. This study examined the determinants of these two behaviours. Across the 10 highest-volume labour wards in Zanzibar, we observed 103 birth attendants across 779 hand hygiene opportunities before aseptic procedures (time-and-motion methods). They were then interviewed using a structured cross-sectional survey. We used mixed-effect multivariable logistic regressions to investigate the independent association of candidate determinants with hand rubbing/washing and avoiding glove recontamination. After controlling for confounders, we found that availability of single-use material to dry hands (OR:2.9; CI:1.58-5.14), a higher workload (OR:29.4; CI:12.9-67.0), more knowledge about hand hygiene (OR:1.89; CI:1.02-3.49), and an environment with more reminders from colleagues (OR:1.20; CI:0.98-1.46) were associated with more hand rubbing/washing. Only the length of time elapsed since donning gloves (OR:4.5; CI:2.5-8.0) was associated with avoiding glove recontamination. We identified multiple determinants of hand washing/rubbing. Only time elapsed since washing/rubbing was reliably associated with avoiding glove recontamination. In this setting, these two behaviours require different interventions. Future studies should measure them separately.
|Number of pages||16|
|Journal||International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health|
|Publication status||Published - 24 Feb 2020|
Bibliographical noteFunding: The project was funded by the Medical Research Council–PHIND scheme. Award number MR/N015975/1. The Soapbox Collaborative also contributed by funding staff involved in this project. This award is jointly funded
by the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) and the UK Department for International Development (DFID) under the MRC/DFID Concordat agreement and is also part of the EDCTP2 programme supported by the European Union. The writing up of this paper provided part of the background needed for the CLEAN Study funded by the UK Joint Global Health Trials (Wellcome, MRC, DFID and DOH). Award number: MR/R019274/1. SN is supported by an award jointly funded by the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) and the UK Department for International Development (DFID) under the MRC/DFID Concordat agreement, which is also part of the EDCTP2 programme supported by the European Union. Award number: MR/R010161/1.
- hand hygiene
- PUERPERAL SEPSIS
- Hand hygiene
- Modifiable determinants