The guaiacol adsorption capacity of several Y zeolites with different physicochemical properties was tested by performing breakthrough adsorption experiments, in order to investigate the guaiacol adsorption on Fluid Catalytic Cracking catalysts during bio-oils/FCC feedstocks co-processing. X-Ray diffraction, nitrogen sorption measurements and pyridine adsorption followed by Infrared Spectroscopy were used to determine the framework Si/Al ratio, the textural parameters, and finally the nature and amount of acid sites. Klinkenberg model was used to fit the experimental data and to obtain the guaiacol adsorption capacity and ka (overall coefficient of mass transfer) and Ke (adsorption equilibrium constant) parameters, which are directly related to, respectively, kinetic and thermodynamic aspects. Ke values, and so guaiacol adsorption, were observed to increase with the total number of Brønsted and Lewis acid sites on the zeolites, as well as with the amount of Na exchange. Conversely, mesoporosity increases the diffusion rate of guaiacol inside the zeolite structure, leading to higher ka values and decreasing guaiacol retention. Overall, data show that guaiacol adsorption on the FCC catalysts, and so its impact on the activity, might decrease with the catalyst age, owing to the changes on the FCC catalyst properties taking place during operation.
The authors thank Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT, Portugal) for financial funding (UIDB/00100/2020 and UIDP/00100/2020). Fernandes also thanks FCT for researcher contract hiring (DL No. 57/2016 regulation).
- Bio-oils co-processing