energy system. Depending on previous land use, widespread deployment of monoculture plantations may contribute to mitigation but can cause negative impacts across a range of other sustainability criteria. Strategic integration of new biomass supply systems into existing agriculture and forest landscapes may result in less mitigation but can contribute positively to other sustainability objectives. There is considerable variation in evaluations of how sustainability challenges evolve as the scale of bioenergy deployment increases, due to limitations of existing models, and uncertainty over the future context with respect to the many variables that influence alternative uses of biomass and land. Reducing the risks of large-scale deployment of bioenergy in mitigation portfolios requires integrative policies, coordinated institutions and improved governance mechanisms to enable co-benefits and minimize adverse side-effects. Further, strong efforts are needed to improve efficiency and management for both energy and non-energy uses of land and biomass in addition to ongoing efforts to decarbonise the energy mix, so as to constrain the biomass demand growth that will likely arise as countries phase out fossil fuels.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors are grateful for comments from three reviewers and the editor. The views expressed in this article are those of the authors alone.
- Agronomy and Crop Science
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Waste Management and Disposal
- integrated assessment models
- climate change